General Surgery


General surgery is one of the oldest branches of medicine. It is based on the principle of transforming the diseases, structural defects and injuries that cannot be cured with drugs or other treatment methods into a natural and appropriate state by surgical repair or removal of the diseased organ.
It is a branch that performs general surgical operations on a wide variety of ailments. They work on all organs, especially the abdomen. Detailed examinations are carried out, diseases are diagnosed and a treatment systematic is created on organs such as bile ducts, liver, spleen, appendix, large and small intestines, rectum, stomach. General surgery also works on thyroid glands, thoracic region and hernia.

Which Diseases Are Treated in General Surgery?

General surgery is a branch that deals with diseases that cannot be achieved with non-invasive methods and that concern abdominal cavity structures and regions such as thyroid, breast and lymph nodes. Therefore, it is wide enough to cover many organs and systems and is divided into sub-branches within itself. According to the health problem of the individual, a treatment program is followed together with the general surgeon with the relevant specialty. Some of the diseases treated in the general surgery department are as follows:


Obesity, which is a metabolic disease that affects the whole body, can become a serious health problem if it is not treated in an appropriate time and manner. Thanks to various techniques performed in general surgery, individuals are helped to reach a healthy weight.

Esophageal Cancer:

It is a type of cancer that progresses with tumors occupying space in the esophagus. Eating problems can cause serious health problems by causing conditions such as excessive weight loss and metastasis.

Gastric Cancer:

It occurs with tumor structures occupying space in the stomach. Unhealthy tissue in the dimensions determined according to the early or advanced stage of the tumor can be surgically removed.

Stomach Hernia (Hiatal Hernia):

It occurs as a result of herniation of the stomach upwards by passing through the diaphragm wall separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases:

It is a group of diseases in which the intestinal structure is adversely affected due to inflammatory processes such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Depending on the severity of the disease and the affected area, surgery may be required to prevent possible problems and for treatment.

Colon Cancer:

Depending on factors such as the type, stage and spread of the cancer, the required level of surgical treatment is applied.

Intestinal Obstructions:

It occurs in the form of disruption of the continuity of the intestine for any reason. This situation can be caused by tumors, as well as a similar problem can be encountered as a result of affecting intestinal functions.


It is an inflammatory condition that occurs as a result of the obstruction of the closed-ended piece just below the junction of the small and large intestines for various reasons. It is among the health problems that require rapid intervention.

Gallbladder Diseases:

Bile flow may be impaired by occlusive factors such as stones. As a result, conditions such as inflammatory processes and infection may be encountered. In addition, the problem of jaundice may occur. Depending on the type and severity of the disease, it may require surgical treatment in varying forms.

Liver Diseases:

In many problems affecting the liver, such as tumors, jaundice, and cyst diseases, treatment is carried out in the specialty of general surgery.

Breast Cancer:

Various types of cancer affecting the breast tissue are treated with operations performed by general surgery. With the procedures determined according to different factors such as tumor type, size and location, the breast structure and peripheral lymph nodes are surgically removed and the tumor tissue is cleaned.

Thyroid Diseases:

In cancer and other massive conditions affecting the thyroid gland, surgical treatment may be required depending on the type and severity of the disease. In this way, precautions can be taken against serious health problems such as metastasis.

Abdominal Wall and Inguinal Hernias:

Hernia problems in the abdominal wall and inguinal region are treated with operations performed by general surgery.


There are different types of hemorrhoids. The general surgeon may follow different treatment methods according to the location and severity of the hemorrhoid.

Perianal Fistula and Other Problems:

Various problems such as fistula and fissure concerning the anus and its surroundings are within the specialty of general surgery.

Spleen Diseases:

All problems with changes in the amount and functions of blood cells and affecting the spleen are included in the treatment field of general surgery.

What are the Treatment Methods in General Surgery?

In diseases related to general surgery, appropriate treatment is planned after the examinations performed by the specialist doctor. Depending on the type of disease, different surgical techniques can be used. As the basic principle is aimed at minimal intervention, laparoscopic surgery is preferred in appropriate cases. Laparoscopic surgery is a type of surgery performed by placing a camera and surgical hand tools through small incisions in a few designated areas. In this way, advantages such as less bleeding and rapid wound healing are obtained compared to open surgeries. Since the operation time is generally less in laparoscopic methods, the exposure to anesthesia is also significantly reduced. However, laparotomy, that is, open surgery, may be preferred when the specialist doctor deems it necessary. In this type of surgery, the problematic tissue is accessed through a wider incision in the abdomen. Successful results can be obtained with the laparotomy method, especially in surgical procedures involving large areas. In the general surgery branch, treatment is also applied in different tissues such as breast, thyroid, perianal region and lymph nodes besides the abdomen. In these areas, different surgical techniques as robotic or manual are used in accordance with the type and location of the disease.

Some of the treatments performed in general surgery can be summarized as follows:

- Thyroid and goiter operations
- Breast cancer and mass treatment
- Lymph node surgery
- Esophageal cancer treatment
- Hiatal hernia (stomach hernia) operation
- Cholecystectomy (removal of the gallbladder)
- Gastrointestinal tumor operations
- Appendectomy (surgery for appendicitis)
- Pancreas surgery
- Abdominal wall and inguinal hernia operations
- Liver, spleen surgeries
- Hemorrhoids treatment
- Anal fistula, fissure treatment
- Obesity surgery
- Liver transplant
- Kidney transplant
- Pancreas transplant

Technologies Used in General Surgery

General surgery is a branch that closely follows technology in order to perform surgeries with the highest efficiency. Thanks to the developing technology, successful results are obtained with new solutions produced for many diseases that could not be adequately treated before. For most operations, there is the possibility of treatment with the closed surgery method. With robotic surgery, which is one of the latest innovations with technology, operations can be performed in a much more detailed and precise manner. Da Vinci robotic technique is one of the most advanced technologies used in general surgery. In operations carried out with da Vinci technology, minimally invasive treatment can be provided with robotic arms controlled by the surgeon remotely.

Compared to other methods, Da Vinci robotic surgery has the following advantages:

- Minimal interference and less scar formation
- Fast recovery process
- Performing sensitive operations with full control during operation
- Less risk of complications

How Do I Get Inspected?

Our patients can apply to our hospital 24/7 in emergency situations. It is necessary to make an appointment from our hospital for a normal outpatient examination.

Frequently asked Questions:

- Do I need to lose weight before the operation?

Your doctor may ask you to follow a special diet program for the 2 weeks before surgery. It can also be a liquid-only diet. Thus, you will both lose weight and get used to the liquid diet you need to apply after the surgery.

- How is appendicitis treated?

Appendicitis treatment is usually surgical removal of the inflamed appendix. This is called an appendectomy. Surgery is possible with open or closed (laparoscopic) method.

- What are the signs and symptoms of appendicitis?

With abdominal cramps, dizziness and vomiting, and pain in the lower right abdomen, a person should suspect appendicitis. These symptoms may continue several times and may become more and more severe. There may also be an increased heart rate and mild fever. Anorexia and constipation are often symptoms of appendicitis.

- What are the signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction?

Symptoms of intestinal obstruction vary according to the level of obstruction. Cramp-like abdominal pain, gas and inability to defecate, nausea and vomiting are the classic symptoms. While the content of vomit is primarily stomach content, it may become stool-like in later periods. Abdominal bloating is more pronounced in lower levels of obstruction. In the advanced stages, the pain becomes constant. As fluid is lost through the intestines along with vomiting, symptoms related to fluid deficit are seen in patients. Dryness is seen in the mouth and on the mucosal surfaces (tissue lining the hollow organs). There is a decrease in urine output. Before reaching this stage, it is absolutely necessary to go to the hospital.

- What causes inguinal hernias?

Indirect hernias are the most common type of inguinal hernia. In this disease, the place where the hernia originates is the inguinal canal itself anatomically. This canal is the natural way that the testicles descend into the bag from the abdomen before birth. It is expected that this place will be closed after the birth. Failure of this canal to close or reopening after closing causes a hernia. Therefore, indirect hernias are more common in children and young people.

Direct hernias are caused by the rupture of the muscle. Hernias seen in athletes and hernias seen in elderly patients are mostly direct hernias. There may be different causes of muscle rupture: These are excessive physical exertion, sudden weight loss, chronic cough, straining and muscle weakness due to aging. Femoral hernias emerge from the femoral canal, which is also an anatomical canal, and are seen in women. It should be kept in mind that the hernia may be a femoral hernia in hernia operations performed with open method in women.

In which patients is closed (laparoscopic) surgery more advantageous?

- In bilateral hernias,
- In those with suspected hernia in the opposite groin,
- Those who want to return to work immediately,
- Professional athletes,
- Those who do sports constantly,
- Those whose work requires physical strength,
- In recurrent hernias,
- In women with inguinal hernia.

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